Vehicles in Central Region
Within the developed zone of the European part of the country, the transport network is more developed and its density is high, in the poorly developed and undeveloped zone of the European North, Siberia and the Far East, transport is less developed, the network density is extremely low.
In general, the Russian Federation is characterized by a latitudinal direction of traffic flows. However, in the zone of continuous economic development (within the triangle St. Petersburg – Sochi – Kemerovo), the main freight and passenger traffic, as well as the network of transport routes, are radial in nature: they converge to the capital of the country, Moscow.
The main interregional mode of transport within the economically developed territory is railway, and in the undeveloped and poorly developed zone – air (the most expensive, but operating year-round), sea (in summer in combination with inland waterways) and pipeline. The main types of intraregional transport are automobile (in the developed zone) and inland waterways, and in the North Zone (see the North of the Extreme regions and equivalent areas) – air.
In Russia, due to long distances, the spatial specialization of certain types of transport has historically developed. For long and medium distances, the bulk of cargo is transported by rail (the average distance of transportation of 1 ton of cargo is 1735 km in 2015; 1540 km in 2011; 1266 km in 2002; 1185 km in 1992), for short distances – by road (46 km in 2015; 39 km in 2011; 143 km in 2002; 138 km in 1992). Inland waterway transport, mainly river transport, transports goods and passengers over medium distances (only in the summer-autumn season of the year, an average distance of 529 km in 2015; 468 km in 2011; 731 km in 2002; 381 km in 1992), sea – provides mainly long-distance transportation between different sea basins (mainly to foreign countries) and along the Northern Sea Route (2210 km in 2015; 2294 km in 2011; 3589 km in 2002; 4484 km in 1992). Through pipelines, 1 ton of crude oil is pumped on average for 2258 km (2015; 1990 km in 2011; 2434 km in 2000), oil products – for 1200 km (1188 km in 2011; 1174 km in 2000), natural gas – for 2385 km ( 2346 km in 2011; 2292 km in 2000). In passenger traffic, for long-distance travel, mainly aircraft are used (the average travel distance of one passenger is 2413 km in 2015; 2527 km in 2011; 2104 km in 2002; 1632 km in 1992), for medium-sized – trains (1176 km in 2015; 1408 km in 2011; 878 km in 2002; 622 km in 1992), for short buses (110 km in 2015; 104 km in 2011; 97 km in 2002; 61 km in 1992); by river transport average
the range of travel of one passenger is 35 km (2015; 36 km in 2011; 170 km in 2002). Thus, the main modes of long-distance transport are air, sea, pipeline and rail, on medium – rail and inland waterways, for short – road.
The average density of railways (km per 1,000 km2 in 2017) in Russia is 7.2 (of which public roads are 5.1); in the European part of the country – 13.7 (from 26-27 in the west to 12-18 in the south and east), in the Asian part – 2.1. The most dense network of railways (km per 1,000 km2) is possessed by Moscow (49.7), Kaliningrad (44.2), Tula (38.2), Kursk (35.2), Leningradskaya (30.4), Vladimirskaya (31.6) and Lipetsk (31.5) regions (2018). With distance from Central Russia, the density of railways decreases rapidly; the lowest values вЂ‹вЂ‹are in the poorly developed regions of the European North, north and east of Siberia and the Far East (from 0.6 to 9 km per 1,000 km2). Vehicles in Central Region
Main meridional lines: Murmansk – St. Petersburg – Moscow – Belgorod; Arkhangelsk – Vologda – Moscow – Voronezh – Rostov-on-Don – North Caucasus; Moscow – Pavelets – Tambov – Saratov – Astrakhan – North Caucasus; Volzhskaya (Privolzhskaya) road (along the right bank of the Volga: Kazan – Ulyanovsk – Syzran – Saratov – Volgograd with access to the North Caucasus to the seaport of Novorossiysk); Transuralskaya railway (Serov – Nizhny Tagil – Yekaterinburg – Chelyabinsk – Orsk).
Until 2030, it is planned to implement 20 projects of high-speed railway lines, with a total length of more than 7 thousand km. The most promising high-speed routes: Moscow – Nizhny Novgorod – Cheboksary – Kazan (with further continuation to Yekaterinburg); Moscow, Saint Petersburg; Moscow – Sochi (at the design stage as of 2020). In 2019, a railway connection was opened on the Crimean Bridge, which connected the Tamansky Peninsula and the city of Kerch.
Number of passengers carried by rail, 1,196.7 million (2019) Of these, 1080.2 million were transported by intracity and suburban trains, 116.5 million – by long-distance trains. The largest senders (million passengers, 2018) are Moscow (465.9), Moscow region (308.8), St. Petersburg (61.3), Leningradskaya (27.7), Novosibirsk (23, 9) regions and Krasnodar Territory (19.8).
The most important railway junctions are Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Rostov-on-Don, Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Barnaul and Novokuznetsk.
The main cargo and passenger traffic flows along latitudinal and radial highways from Moscow to St. Petersburg, the North Caucasus, the Volga region and the Urals.